To draw an actual map of the Internet would be nearly impossible due to it's size, complexity, and ever changing structure. Does every computer connected to the Internet know where the other computers are?
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Do packets simply get 'broadcast' to every computer on the Internet? The answer to both the preceeding questions is 'no'. No computer knows where any of the other computers are, and packets do not get sent to every computer. The information used to get packets to their destinations are contained in routing tables kept by each router connected to the Internet. Routers are packet switches. A router is usually connected between networks to route packets between them. Each router knows about it's sub-networks and which IP addresses they use. The router usually doesn't know what IP addresses are 'above' it.
Examine Diagram 5 below. The black boxes connecting the backbones are routers. Under them are several sub-networks, and under them, more sub-networks. At the bottom are two local area networks with computers attached. Diagram 5 When a packet arrives at a router, the router examines the IP address put there by the IP protocol layer on the originating computer. The router checks it's routing table. If the network containing the IP address is found, the packet is sent to that network.
If the network containing the IP address is not found, then the router sends the packet on a default route, usually up the backbone hierarchy to the next router. Hopefully the next router will know where to send the packet. If it does not, again the packet is routed upwards until it reaches a NSP backbone. The routers connected to the NSP backbones hold the largest routing tables and here the packet will be routed to the correct backbone, where it will begin its journey 'downward' through smaller and smaller networks until it finds it's destination.
What if the you need to access a web server referred to as www. How does your web browser know where on the Internet this computer lives? The DNS is a distributed database which keeps track of computer's names and their corresponding IP addresses on the Internet. Many computers connected to the Internet host part of the DNS database and the software that allows others to access it. These computers are known as DNS servers.
No DNS server contains the entire database; they only contain a subset of it. The computer requesting a name resolution will be re-directed 'up' the hierarchy until a DNS server is found that can resolve the domain name in the request. Figure 6 illustrates a portion of the hierarchy. At the top of the tree are the domain roots. Some of the older, more common domains are seen near the top. What is not shown are the multitude of DNS servers around the world which form the rest of the hierarchy.
When an Internet connection is setup e. This way, any Internet applications that need domain name resolution will be able to function correctly. For example, when you enter a web address into your web browser, the browser first connects to your primary DNS server. After obtaining the IP address for the domain name you entered, the browser then connects to the target computer and requests the web page you wanted. Right click on your Internet connection and click Properties. If you have a permanent connection to the Internet: Right click on Network Neighborhood and click Properties.
Select the DNS Configuration tab at the top. You will probably have to restart Windows as well. Now enter an address into your web browser. The browser won't be able to resolve the domain name and you will probably get a nasty dialog box explaining that a DNS server couldn't be found. However, if you enter the corresponding IP address instead of the domain name, the browser will be able to retrieve the desired web page. Other Microsoft operating systems are similar. HTTP is a connectionless text based protocol. Clients web browsers send requests to web servers for web elements such as web pages and images.
After the request is serviced by a server, the connection between client and server across the Internet is disconnected. A new connection must be made for each request. Most protocols are connection oriented.
This means that the two computers communicating with each other keep the connection open over the Internet. HTTP does not however. Before an HTTP request can be made by a client, a new connection must be made to the server.
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When you type a URL into a web browser, this is what happens: If the URL contains a domain name, the browser first connects to a domain name server and retrieves the corresponding IP address for the web server. The web browser connects to the web server and sends an HTTP request via the protocol stack for the desired web page.
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The web server receives the request and checks for the desired page. If the page exists, the web server sends it. If the server cannot find the requested page, it will send an HTTP error message. The web browser receives the page back and the connection is closed.
The browser then parses through the page and looks for other page elements it needs to complete the web page. These usually include images, applets, etc.
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For each element needed, the browser makes additional connections and HTTP requests to the server for each element. When the browser has finished loading all images, applets, etc. It's use has declined lately, but it is a very useful tool to study the Internet. In Windows find the default telnet program. It may be located in the Windows directory named telnet.
When opened, pull down the Terminal menu and select Preferences. In the preferences window, check Local Echo. This is so you can see your HTTP request when you type it.
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Now pull down the Connection menu and select Remote System. Enter www. Web servers usually listen on port 80 by default. Press Connect. This is a simple HTTP request to a web server for it's root page. You should see a web page flash by and then a dialog box should pop up to tell you the connection was lost. If you'd like to save the retrieved page, turn on logging in the Telnet program. You may then browse through the web page and see the HTML that was used to write it. How Does the Internet Work? Good question!
The Internet's growth has become explosive and it seems impossible to escape the bombardment of www. Because the Internet has become such a large part of our lives, a good understanding is needed to use this new tool most effectively. If you're using Microsoft Windows or a flavor of Unix and have a connection to the Internet, there is a handy program to see if a computer on the Internet is alive.
Converts binary packet data to network signals and back.
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Webpages can have a different appearance depending on the web browser used. Each browser has a cache in which data is temporarily stored when a webpage is accessed. This means that, when a webpage is re-visited, not all the data needs to be requested from the web server.
Running dynamic websites that use complex content management systems benefit from quick loading times. This is because they ensure good performance and therefore increase user-friendliness. With the release of PHP7, a new scripting language is now available with which the loading times of your own website can be significantly shortened compared to the older script version.
What exactly is a website? Who needs one, and what are the different options available for private users and businesses? There are solutions for beginners, which require no programming knowledge. These solutions, especially content management systems, have established themselves in the last few years due to their flexible content management. Professionals, however, still swear by self-written The trends driving web development are moving away from static web presences and heading increasingly in the direction of interactive content.