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The Town Hill station also included active acquisition aid and receiving antennas on separate towers. The Cooper's Island station was located on the southeastern tip of Bermuda about miles out in the Atlantic from the U. Radar dishes and helical antennae were used to track anything from spacecraft to sparrows. At the time of launch, the primary mission of the station was to provide trajectory data to the computing facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center GSFC.

Computations based on data obtained during the final portion of powered flight was used to confirm the orbital "Go-No Go" decision. The station was usually able to supply a minimum of 60 seconds of valid radar data prior to engine cutoff and orbital insertion. For subsequent passes of the space craft, Bermuda served as a normal tracking station with command capabilities. In addition to supporting manned missions, the Bermuda station commanded, tracked and acquired valuable data from a host of unmanned scientific and application satellites launched from Cape Kennedy and NASA's Wallops Island launch facility in Virginia.

In between flight missions, the Bermuda station's sophisticated instrumentation was employed by scientists to conduct research ranging from the migratory habits of birds to astronomy. A dramatic shark attack occurred just off Elbow Beach, with Mickey Caines, then employed at the Elbow Beach Surf Club, credited with killing the nine-foot shark after it had injured a fellow hotel employee.

Later, a hotel restaurant there was named Mickey's, in his honour. The nine-foot long shark attacked fellow Elbow Beach employee, waiter Louis Goiran, aged He was seriously bitten while swimming only about 15 feet from shore. While two men rushed to Mr Goiran's aid, Mr Caines ordered everyone out of the water. The shark was subsequently gaffed with a hand spear and brought by boat to shore alive, where it was killed by forcing an oar down its throat. The shark's victim, Mr Goiran, needed 50 stitches to his hands and feet.

Ross Doe was one of those in the boat and leant on the boat's gunwale to keeps his spear implanted in the shark. In the stern was Lucius Stone holding the shark's tail. Bruce Hartnell rowed the boat back to shore with Hans Behringer assisting. September to September Crew enjoyed periodic station leave at the-then unused former British Army camp near Horseshoe Beach, in between patrols covering the whole of North and South America.

They enjoyed the hospitality of the local people. One crew member spent a few days with a local family over Christmas when then was a brief appearance of snow, usually unheard of in Bermuda and attended Mass with them on Christmas Eve. Cubana had first started to fly to Bermuda in and in had suffered a major incident in Bermuda. But the service had continued. Now, they stopped.

As a result of the stoppage, Cabana had no option but to switch from Bermuda to Gander, Newfoundland and Shannon, Ireland stops on Cubana's Prague route Gander only on the Madrid route. The Bermuda stop on the outbound and Azores on inbound flights had been essential because Cubana's British-made Britannia aircraft did not have the necessary range to fly nonstop to and from Europe. Fortunately for Cubana, the Canadian and Irish governments provided landing rights and refused to bend to U. The denial of those rights by Canada and Ireland would have forced Cubana to discontinue its transatlantic routes.

It is an account of the first British ship and its crew and passengers to colonize Bermuda. The cover for this book, which caused a sensation in Bermuda and became one of his most famous books, was designed by artist John Alan Maxwell. HMS Londonderry was based at the Royal Navy Dockyard at Island Island during her first commission and the ships company have very many happy memories of Bermuda and the hospitality that was afforded them whilst there.

This was as a direct result of the continued Canadian presence in Bermuda. This decision was noted by the Canadian Cabinet at a meeting in February Elliott Extension School opened at Prospect as a special needs school for the physically handicapped , initially with children and four lady teachers. It had the encouragement of the American Consulate, which believed that it would be beneficial for United States citizens in Bermuda to get together from time to time.

For fiscal and diplomatic reasons, local workers were used as much as possible to build the station, and NASA employed 60 contractors and 20 Bermudians to operate it. A smaller site was in Town Hill on the main island. It was used for 37 years as a tracking and communications facility for various space programmes, including the Mercury and Apollo missions and space shuttle flights because of its key geographical position in relation to launch trajectories for space vehicles blasting off from Cape Canaveral in Florida.

The NASA Bermuda station manager was Bill Way, who helped set it up and played a key role in space exploration by tracking shuttle missions. His team's job included monitoring shuttles every 90 minutes as they came around the earth, and receiving scientific data transmitted by units left on the moon following lunar missions.

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Arriving in Bermuda from California with childhood sweetheart Margie and deciding never to leave, Mr. Way had seven children, two of whom died in tragic circumstances. He had a lifelong interest in science and engineering. He was involved in Apollo programmes. When they were little he would tell his children the stories about them and the children would get to meet the astronauts.

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He was also well-known on the local tennis circuit for his dedication to the Bermuda Lawn Tennis Association. Bermuda was one of NASA's first stations built on foreign soil and was also one of the most critical. The Mercury Atlas flight path was almost directly over the island, which enabled a brief but essential second window to track and make decisions about its status as it ascended into orbit. During the launch of an Atlas rocket- an Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile used to launch the Mercury astronauts and the NASA's early large satellites, a decision to continue or abort had to be made in only a to second window after the rocket's main engine had cut off.

The failure rate of the Atlas booster in those early days was very high - about 50 percent - so aborted missions were common. The Bermuda station was established to keep an eye on every Cape Canaveral launch and the first critical phases of the flight downrange, making it a key station during the launch phase of any mission. The control centre at Bermuda provided reliable communications and controls in the event that it became necessary to make abort decisions. Many mathematical and trajectory experts believed such a "short arc" solution would be impossible, but data analysis, some of it generated by the Bermuda tracking station, determined that, even with such a small timeframe, a spacecraft could be turned around and its retrorockets fired so that it could reenter in the Atlantic recovery area before reaching its point of impact on the African coast.

During Project Mercury, NASA's first man-in-space programme, the network was not well-centralized and communication was done by sometimes-unreliable teletype, so flight controllers were dispatched to most of the primary tracking stations in order to maintain immediate contact with the spacecraft from the ground. Astronauts also acted as capsule communicators known as Capcoms at various sites. Donald K.

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Deke Slayton, head of Flight Crew Operations at Houston's Manned Spacecraft Center, was said to have assigned astronauts to Bermuda as well as sites in Hawaii, California, and Australia as Capcoms to give them some much-needed rest and relaxation in beautiful places. Later, in , to prepare for sending astronauts into space, an ocean floor cable capable of carrying 2, bits-per-second of digital information was laid to connect the new station on Bermuda with Cape Canaveral.

This link continued to serve the Bermuda Station well into the Space Shuttle era. The Bermuda station was overhauled in preparation for the lunar landing programme. As it had been on Mercury and Gemini, Bermuda would be an essential station immediately after launch. As the first station to electronically see the rocket, operators could observe most of the second and third stage burns at high elevation angles.

All of the various telemetry facilities scattered around in pre-fabricated metal structures and trailers on Town Hill and Cooper's Island were to be consolidated.

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The original facilities also were corroded by years of sea salt and moisture. An air conditioned, 1,square meter Operations Building was built and a square meter Generator Building housed the diesel generator. Next to the USB antenna, a small building contained the hydro-mechanical equipment that pointed the massive antenna. Concrete foundations were dug for the dish and the collimation tower. Extensive cabling was installed, and a microwave terminal was relocated.

Shuttle flights on easterly trajectories went all the way into orbit on their backs.

In November , Columbia, the Shuttle program's 88th flight, was the first to roll the entire stack from its usual belly-up to a belly-down position in a second maneuver six minutes after liftoff. Such a maneuver previously had been used only if Mission Control declared an emergency landing due to a failed main engine or the loss of cabin pressure during the crew's ascent into orbit.

This innovation meant that the Bermuda station was no longer necessary for the success of NASA launches. The phase-out of the Bermuda station in signaled the end of the era of the worldwide network of space flight tracking stations. After enabling legislation finally allowed it, Bermuda's hotels and restaurants eliminated their earlier their front-desk policy of exclusion.

Bermuda tourism became open to all. Universal, but not equal, suffrage was achieved. It was not equal because landowners receive a plus vote.

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Formation of the Teachers Rugby Club. Alan Leigh, a schoolteacher from England, an avid rugby fan, was one of the founding members, along with Gabriel Rodrigues, Alwyn McKittrick, Ted Pearson and Carey Maddern, he pulled together a team at first made up of expatriate teachers. He was also a former president and general secretary for the Association of School Principals.

Mr Leigh was a strong supporter of parents, especially men, being involved in the education of their children. The enactment of the Restaurant Act in Bermuda created parity between black and white diners. He pioneered the space launches from the USA. Enos was considered the most intelligent of all of the trained chimps, which is why he was chosen for the mission.

He fought mightily against the veterinarians and operant conditioning, and was quick to bite so he was kept on tethers when not in training.